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托福寫作考題解析
2019-04-09 15:39   作者:喻薈璇   閱讀量:

  作者:喻薈璇  新航道武漢學校托福寫作講師、SAT數學講師、A-level化學講師。澳大利亞墨爾本大學碩士,五年海外留學及工作經歷。熟悉托福考試,善于培養學生邏輯思維和語言運用能力,帶動學習氛圍,課堂生動有趣;亦師亦友,深受學員們喜愛。


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  2019.03.16 托福綜合寫作真題

  Integrated Writing Task

  閱讀部分:tiger數量減少三個原因

  1、捕獵;

  2、和當地居民競爭領地;

  3、habitat fragmentation;

  聽力反駁:這三個問題都可以被解決或重新利用

  1、有一種aircraft可以detect這些hunting;

  2、當地居民可以利用tiger的價值(value), 比如讓tourist來看老虎;

  3、有一個wild life corridors(小黑板)可以連接兩個fragment 所以不是問題。

  20190316的綜合寫作算是對考生們高抬貴手,動物類數量增加或減少都是比常見的綜合題型。其中除了第三個分論點(habitat fragmentation)稍顯陌生,其余兩點都可以在TPO的日常練習中找到熟悉的身影。如TPO10, TPO15, TPO17, TPO23和TPO48,都是動物數量上升或下降的題型。

  Keywords: animals, population, decline, increase

  可以類比下列這些TPO的綜合寫作。

  TPO10 Sea otter population off

  閱讀部分:pollution假說是對的

  ? 水樣本中chemical pollution level持續上升—對感染的抵抗力下降,life-threatening to them

  ? other sea mammals also declining-again environment pollution,或者是出現了廣泛存在的肉食動物predators,但是它們只吃大點的prey

  ? pollution假說 可以解釋otter數量下降不平均模式——洋流/其他環境因素可能造成污染物濃度不均勻

  聽力反駁:predator假說是對的

  ? 污染會導致大量死亡,但沒人在海灘上找到otter尸體,所以pollution理論不對。并且predator會直接吃掉otter,所以沒有尸體被沖到岸上,predator假說更合理。

  ? orca更喜歡whales 但whales基本已從該地區消失。為了survive它們可能會改吃otter/seal/sea lion

  ? orca易接近的地方 otter數量下降更多,orca體型大進不了shallow and rocky location,而恰好這些地方otter數量沒有減少

  TPO15 Cane toad population spreading

  閱讀部分:

  ? National fence to isolate the invaded area

  ? Captured and destroyed by volunteers

  ? Disease-causing virus to control the population

  聽力反駁:

  ? 幼小的Cane toad和toad eggs一般都在水中,所以建立圍欄也防止不了水路的攜帶;

  ? 未受訓練的volunteers可能會危害到長相類似的瀕危natural frogs;

  ? virus可能會被帶到中南美洲危害當地的生態系統。

  TPO17 Birds number declines

  閱讀部分:(原因)

  ? 人類的population and settlements擴張,減少了棲息地;

  ? Agricultural activities增多導致了棲息范圍的進一步下降;

  ? Pesticide的使用,進入鳥的食物鏈且影響繁殖。

  聽力反駁:

  ? 城市發展為了other types of birds提供更好更大的棲息地

  ? 每天用于農業的土地越來越少,由于引進了more productive varieties of crops,因此沒必要destroy wildness area

  ? New and much less toxic pesticides have been developed,并且更多的pest resistant crops(reduce the need for chemical pesticides)

  TPO48 frog species have declines

  閱讀部分:

  ? Pesticide for crops -attack frogs nerve system VS

  ? Fungus-thickening the skin- dehydration

  ? Natural habitat is threatened by human activities

  聽力反駁:

  ? Pesticide對于農民來說非常重要,降低crop loss,保持在市場上的競爭力。

  ? Treatment against fungus需要作用在每一只青蛙上,并且每一代都需要,非常complicated and expensive.

  ? 實際原因不是excessive water use 而是global warming引起的數量下降。

  綜上所述,不難發現,有一些觀點是動植物數量變化中非常常見的。掌握了以下幾個綜合寫作中的“多方便理由”,可以在考場上信心倍增。

  2 農藥/殺蟲劑(toxic or chemical pesticides)

  2 棲息地破壞(habitat decline, environment damage)

  2 人類活動(human activities-land use, water use)

  2 微生物(fungus, virus, bacteria)

  2 捕食關系(prey, predator, hunting)


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  2019.03.16托福獨立寫作真題

  Independent Writing Task

  

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

  

  Taking a lot time to make decisions was a bad quality for people to have, but now, is a good quality for people to have.

  

  題目解析:

  雖然這是一道舊題,重復了2016.08.20CN的題,但是仍然難倒了不少考生。有以下三個原因: 1. 話題陌生;2. 題目抽象有深度;3. 題目中有對比并且太absolute。這種題目很容易讓人思路枯竭不知如何下筆。首先,立意方面,后半段說對于現在來說,花很長時間做決定是好事。語言比較absolute會推薦學生選擇disagree;同時,限定條件是“now”,從常理推段,當今快節奏的社會,提倡效率,因此本文選擇disagree。其次,構思方面,一旦遇到抽象的題目,一般建議學生使用“不同情況分析法”把上義詞拆分,以幫助學生具體化,能很快從身邊熟悉的場景中找素材,并分情況討論,不至于無話可話。因此,這一題把decisions拆成-危急關頭的決定(要不要救人)和難得一遇的決定(要不要投資),都可以引用生活當中的例子來論證;再加一個讓步段,即可完成一篇2+1的獨立寫作了。此外,對于比較有深度或反應社會現象的題目,可以采用“提問式”的開頭方式,更能引人深思。請參考如下范文:

  Have you been missing some great opportunities, as a result of your delayed decisions? Have you ever had all the information at hand being ready to make a choice but still be hesitant? Despite some voice goes like “It really depends on the context” or “It is the quality of the decision that matters rather than the time”, I still firmly believe that time and tide wait for no man, especially in the current age of opportunity.

  In extreme cases, the nature of the environment requires decisions to be made under time pressure. Excessive time can only aggravate the situation. Take my real experience as an example. I was on the street one day. One of the trash bins on the sidewalk was smoking while people were walking by with a glance at it. I was hesitating whether it is necessary to call the firefighting. Suddenly, it lit up and exploded with a loud sound. Everyone on the street was dispersing with scream. What’s worse, the flying lid caused severe injury on an old lady. It enlightened me that “wait and see” is not a good strategy or quality if you are a firefighter, security guard and surgeon in particular. The worst situation could be avoided only if we make the decision and act right away.

  On top of that, an opportunity seizer should be a quick decision maker. Some once-in-life opportunities, saying purchasing the last land in a vigorous developing suburb or applying for a promising and decent job, will slip away if you are not a fast shooter. A good example is the stock market in where time is everything. The traders better make decisions rapidly within a few seconds or minutes of seeing a signal whilst some swing traders usually spend a whole day to analyze the statistics and trends and the rock bottom has passed, let alone long term investors. One of my friends, who is the trader in forex, also tell me either overanalyzing or overthinking will grape your money. That is why it is not hard to find the earning traders are sensitive and decisive ones.

  Indeed, it requires ample time to consider through the issues that would have significant life implications, which university you will attend or who you are going to marry, for example. But it doesn’t mean that taking much time to decide deserves applause. For most circumstances, delayed decision will only bring people no benefits or loss. Instead of dwelling on why I missed the chance, make a prompt decision and never slip it away until you have followed through.

  Bottom line, not to mention whether it is bad, it is definitely not a good quality to taking long time to decide in the modern society as some life-or-death and one-in-a-thousand decisions must be made in a few seconds.


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